It is a professional relationship between a qualified counsellor and a help-seeker, which is often an individual relationship. Such relationship aims at helping the help-seeker to help himself/herself. In the field of rehabilitation of people with disabilities, counselling is very important because the problems associated with disability are rarely limited to the professional aspect. There are difficulties in relation to accepting the disabled person due to his/her disability, and parents’ acceptance of their child’s disability, self-perception, attitudes of other people, and relationships with family members and other people.
Case studies provide important and useful information about the person’s background and developmental history. Through a meeting with the parents, the social worker, counsellor or teacher obtains personal information about the student, such as his/her name, age, address and school, as well as information about the parents, family, and circumstances of pregnancy and birth. Such information also includes information about his/her health and development history, current condition, personal and social traits and previous school experiences.
Observation represents is one of the sources of collecting important organizational information about students with special needs. This includes watching the student while doing various behaviors and interacting with others and objects around him/her. Observation also provides information about the person’s social adaptation, reactions, trends and information about his/her fine and gross motor development. Therefore, observation allows collection of information that cannot be obtained from tests and other evaluation tools.
A system of services including various therapeutic and training elements. Such system aims at assisting children with disabilities or with developmental delays or at risk of disability in the early years of life. In addition, the early intervention program pays particular attention to the family, which is a key part of the success of the training. Early intervention programs include prevention of developmental delays, early detection of disabilities and delays, provision of educational experts, and provision of support services, e.g.: physiotherapy and occupational therapy for children with special needs, and provision of early intervention services either in specialized centers, homes or hospitals.
It is a severe behavioral disorder in which behavior, communication and thinking are disturbed. Characteristics of autism usually appear before the age of three. The six distinguishing characteristics of autism are: apparent sensory impairments, as it appears that the child cannot see or her, failure to develop social relationships, excessive self-stimulation, tantrums and self-harm, poor verbal and non-verbal communication, and finally severe behavioral deficits, as such children lack self-care and playing skills. Autism is now treated as a complete developmental disorder because the autistic child suffers from a deficit in almost all the essential aspects of growth.
Application of learning principles derived from experiments in order to change human behaviors of social importance through organizing or reorganizing the current environmental conditions related to the behavior to be modified. Behavior modification does not mean using any method to change behavior. However, behavior modification is a learning curve that involves the formation of new behavioral patterns, such as curbing unacceptable habits and responses and promoting and supporting acceptable responses.
All the skills related to taking care of the personal appearance, selecting appropriate clothes and maintaining their cleanliness, using familiar community facilities such as the telephone, means of transportation, bank, grocery shops and restaurants, as well as crossing the street, using money, and knowing time. On the other hand, such activities also include skills related to family life, such as housekeeping, preparing meals, and preparing and cleaning the dining table, and acting properly in emergencies.
It is the main tool used in the field of special education to ensure provision of special educational services and support services that suit the student’s individual needs. The benefit of the individual educational plan lies in allowing communication between parents and school staff in relation to the student’s needs and the services that will be provided and the desired objectives. Such plan also constitutes a written guarantee of the resources necessary to help the student to benefit from special education services. It is also the administrative tool that guarantees the students’ right to obtain special education services necessary to meet their individual needs.
All the services needed by students with disabilities so that they can benefit from special education programs. These services include provision of mean of transportation and developmental and corrective services, e.g.: such as speech therapy, audiometry, psychological services, counselling, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, recreational therapy and health services. Support services also include school health services, family counselling and training and social service. If the school or center cannot directly provide some or all of the services, students can be referred to appropriate local or national bodies in order to obtain such services.
A person trained to achieve recruitment and employment objectives. The primary role of such person is to identify available job opportunities in the local market, communicate and coordinate with employers, train and assist people with disabilities to acquire job search skills, and acct as a source of information and guidance for people with disabilities. Such specialist pays particular attention to communicating with employers in order to find suitable employment opportunities for people with disabilities. In addition, such specialist is committed to protecting relationships between employers and the disabled persons and to ensuring safety of the work conditions for the candidate.
It is evaluation of the professional skills and trends. This aims at assisting trainees in the process of professional growth. Useful professional evaluation is characterized by comprehensiveness and includes collection of medical, psychological, social, educational, economic, cultural and professional information. Therefore, professional evaluation is a multi-faceted process that involves the use of various tools and methods, including individual or collective tests, work samples and observation of people’s behavior while working.
It is a preparatory stage for vocational training. Such stage is concerned with usage of various diagnostic and corrective services for people with disabilities and aims at developing their general knowledge and the procedures in force at work so that such people can benefit from vocational rehabilitation programs to the maximum extent possible. This requires the use of certain methods, such as visiting the workplace, reading about different professions, filling employment applications, using public mean of transportation, and personal income management.
The recruitment process does not end by simply helping a person find a suitable job. The main purpose of post-employment services is to help the person to keep his job. This service may be offered once or several times and may include any of the rehabilitation elements, such as counselling, training, communication with the employer and other services, but in a brief and non-intensive manner. Post-employment services include maintenance of wheelchairs or hearing aids, additional professional training when the job requirements change, provision of health services, counselling and guidance.
A set of procedures that aim at designing work in a manner that allows persons with disabilities to do it. Such procedures include removal of obstacles from the workplace, whether such obstacles are relevant to architectural aspects or labor laws and regulations. This also includes the procedures related to improving the professional competence of people with disabilities through the use of artificial limbs or various adaptive equipment. For this reason, work engineering mainly focuses on adapting work, but may also include implementation of certain procedures in order to develop the person’s effectiveness level.IntegrationTeaching students with special needs with ordinary students in general education schools, either in whole or in part. Integration is the practical application of the principle of normalization at school level. The goal of integration is to achieve the principle of equality of educational opportunities and to encourage ordinary teachers, teachers of special education, managers, parents and students to cooperate in order to meet the special educational needs of students with disabilities. Integration in its comprehensive sense is not limited to academic integration, but it also includes social integration.
These are the specialized services provided by the integration team to the students who have been integrated into general education schools. The multidisciplinary team continues to provide support and specialized programs for the school, teacher and student. Such services seek to ensure the success of the integration process and the success of the student at the school after being transferred from the care and rehabilitation center to a general education school.
It is the plan that indicates the student’s current condition and determines his/her continuous needs after being transferred from the care and rehabilitation center to a general education school. The transition plan is formulated in a meeting that includes all members of the multidisciplinary team, teacher, parent and student. Such meeting is held for the purpose of agreeing on the important considerations that must be taken into account when transferring the student from the care and rehabilitation center to school.
It is one of the main forms of rehabilitation of the disabled. Vocational rehabilitation includes all the services provided to the disabled in order to enter the world of work as productive and self-adapting individuals to the maximum extent possible. Such services include various elements, the most important of which are: evaluation, counselling, guidance, adaptation, vocational preparation, vocational training, operation and follow-up. The main objective of vocational rehabilitation services is to employ the disabled, either in the competitive labor market, protected workshops, individual projects or otherwise.
The use of various activities to develop the professional, physical and mental skills of the trainees. This training includes extensive learning experiences that would help the trainees achieve the professional goals specified in their individual qualification programs. For vocational training to achieve its desired goal, which is employment of the disabled, it must be supported by programs for development of the personal and social adaptation levels.
They are protected workshops designed specifically to provide non-competitive employment opportunities for the disabled. A protected workshop may be a building or stand-alone programs or a part of a rehabilitation institution. Work in protected workshops is usually simple, such as assembly and installation, by contracting with local companies through bidding. However, some protected workshops also produce their own products and market such products locally.
It is the trend that seeks to teach individuals academic skills according to the national curriculum followed in general education schools and encourages participation of individuals in such cognitive activities. This trend encourages students to adopt a problem-solving approach. Cognitive teaching focuses on increasing the individual’s awareness of task requirements, using appropriate cognitive strategies and monitoring the success of the strategy used.
They are tests that measure the skills mastered or the information acquired by the student in a particular academic field as a result of his/her education or training. Achievement tests are either individual or collective, covering one field (e.g.: reading) or covering more than one field (e.g.: math, spelling, and reading), or norm-referenced tests or criterion-referenced tests. For more information on a student’s achievement, teachers may use observation, analyze student’s mistakes, or use questionnaires and interviews in order to identify variables that affect the student’s achievement.
The social worker provides various and important social services for people with special needs and their families. Social services are among the basic support services that should be provided to the disabled who are offered special education programs. These services may include individual, group or family counselling. These specialists also play a very important role in the efforts exerted to train and educate the disabled through coordination between the families of the disabled and their schools or other relevant institutions and bodies in the local community.
Psychology is the science that attempts to explain, predict and control human behavior. Psychology includes various specializations, including educational psychology, developmental psychology, school psychology and social psychology. Such specializations can provide the disabled with so much help in adapting, developing and becoming independent. Psychologists specializing in special education are often assigned the tasks of diagnosis, behavior modification and assistance in organizing the classroom environment in a positive manner that stimulates students’ motivation to learn.
Cases of motor disabilities are the least homogeneous category, as such category includes a number of neurological disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and health disorders. Such category of disability is of a low-incidence, as its prevalence rate is 1000: 5.
This includes cases of hearing loss of various types and degrees. This term includes both deafness and hearing impairment. Hearing disability may either occur from the moment of birth or occur at a later stage in life. In addition, such disability may be conductive, i.e. caused by a defect in the outer or middle ear, or neurological, i.e. caused by a defect in the inner ear or auditory nerve, or central, i.e. caused by a defect in the higher brain centers responsible for processing auditory information.
It is the type of education in which all students strive to achieve a common goal, and thus each of them feels responsible for the other students. This pattern encourages students to accept and support each other, because it involves positive interactions. The main principle of cooperative education is that teachers, specialists and assistant teachers participate in achievement of the same learning objectives, which makes them all participate in planning and bearing workloads. In the cooperative learning model, all team members determine the learning objectives to be taught to students and the method of measuring their development. In addition, all team members agree on the method of distributing teaching and educational tasks among them all.
It is group of specialists, each of them represents a different specialization related to the growth and learning of people with disabilities, as well as the parents and people with disabilities themselves, if their condition allows them to work together to make appropriate decisions about the nature of the services needed and their provision mechanism. The team includes specialists in the fields of special education, physiotherapy, psychology, occupational therapy, counselling, recreational therapy, speech therapy, medicine, rehabilitation and social services.
It is the use of numbers in describing, categorizing and organizing information and data in a clear manner that can be explained and understood.
To make the appropriate decision in the light of the information provided by the measurement process. Evaluation is not concerned with determination of the reasons or diagnostic categories. However, evaluation is concerned with development of programs based on the special needs (strengths and weaknesses) rather than based on the label given to an individual. Evaluation focuses on selection of educational and training objectives based on the individual’s current performance level. Evaluation also includes following-up performance frequently in order to determine the changes that occur and then modify the objectives and methods, as needed.
Detailed information about the person aiming at determining the nature of the problem from which he/she suffers and its causes and methods of treatment. Workers in the humanitarian field have taken this term from the medical profession. Diagnosis is an organized process performed by specialists using various evaluation tests and strategies. This process usually involves giving a specific label and classification of the case.
It is the process through which the processes of measurement, evaluation and diagnosis are used to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the student, develop the basics of the habitational educational plan for the student, provide feedback on the extent of benefiting from the services provided, and reformulate the plan, as necessary.
They are tools that measure the educational and adaptive capabilities in non-academic settings. Such tools focus on general life skills such as communication, self-care and social competence. Therefore, these scales differ from intelligence tests that focus on measuring school learning capabilities. Adaptive behavior scales are not directly applied to the person, but to people who directly know such person, e.g.: parents and teachers, who describe his/her current performance. The uses of adaptive behavior scales are not limited to diagnosis of mental retardation, as such scales also help, through the information the provide on non-adaptive behavior patterns, in selection of the appropriate educational situation and in identifying the elements of behavior modification programs.
It is the lack of ability to see for the purpose of carrying out the daily life functions. Therefore, the blind rely on their other senses to interact with the surrounding environment and to learn reading and writing in Braille. Rom the legal medical aspect, a person is considered to be blind if his/her visual acuity is less than (20/300) feet or (6/60) meters in the better eye after implementation of various medical remedial measures. A person is also considered to be blind if his/her field of vision is very limited and does not exceed 20 degrees.
It is also called partial sight. It is the second major category of visual disability. From a medical/legal aspect, a visually impaired person has a visual acuity between (20/70 - 20/200) feet or (6/21 - 6/60) meters in the better eye after implementation of all possible remedial measures.
It is a tactile communication system that enables the blind to read and write through a system of tactile embossed codes on cardboard. Such system was developed by the French Louis Braille in the 19th century. In such system, the individual places his/her fingers on the embossed dots representing letters, so that the tactile information are received through the sensory receptors at the finger tips. The cognitive unit in Braille reading is the embossed dots called “feature”. Tactile reading requires assembly of separate features to form a complete word.
Books that are characterized by large size of letters and print that are clear and free from shadows. Such books aim at enabling the visually impaired students to read without problems. Magnified materials and books with large pages are no longer practical for a number of reasons, the most important of which is their high cost and space occupied by this type of publications. In addition, the size of magnification is fixed, which may not be suitable to all the visually impaired individuals. For this reason, such practice was replaced by various visual aids that allow the use of direct magnification using suitable optical instruments.
It is the type of therapy that aims at treating and preventing injuries, disabilities and other physical disorders using mechanical and chemical methods. Such methods include heat, light, massage, air, water, sound, electricity, motor exercises, and sports. Physiotherapy also includes the use of remedial devices and tools such as wheelchairs, crutches and splinters.
Occupational therapy is a support service for special education. It includes evaluation of the person’s functional abilities and planning a program of activities that aim at developing such person’s self-reliance level through developing his/her fine motor skills and helping him/her to reach the maximum limit of his/her physical and mental abilities. Evaluation in occupational therapy focuses on oral motor disorders, eating disorders, sensory processes, cognitive and motor visual condition, manual dexterity, self-care skills, playing, neuromuscular functions, and daily life skills.
Wheelchairs are used by people who are unable to move, people who cannot stand, or people whose walk lacks stability. For some people, the wheelchair is an extremely important means for preventing impairment from becoming disability. The most common wheelchairs are the chairs made of metal covered with chrome which back and seat are made of leather or plastic. Wheelchairs have two large wheels at the back that move through a separate hand grip.
Fine motor skills or muscular skills in the hands are essential for all children, whether they are normal or disabled. Such skills are necessary for all forms of motor behavior and for performing most of daily life activities, self-care skills and professional and academic skills as well. One of the most important fine motor skills is the precision of manual dexterity and reaching to things and picking, carrying and dropping things.
Speech is the production of verbal sounds using speech organs, which are the teeth, tongue, lips, hard palate and soft palate. Speech disorders or errors are problems that result in the production of verbal sounds in a wrong manner. Such disorders are represented in four forms: substitution, distortion, addition, deletion.
Deviations or errors in the use of the linguistic code or grammar. Such disorders are either in the expressive language or in the receptive language. In addition, such disorders may be in the form of language or in the verbal sounds or in the language content, i.e. in the meanings of words and messages or in the use of language, i.e. in the rules of language use in different situations.
A battery-powered technological tool for amplification of sound. Each hearing aid is composed of three parts: a microphone, which function is to capture sound waves and convert them into electrical energy, an amplifier, which is a special wire that increases the volume of sound, and a receiver, which is a tool that converts electrical energy into sound again, and a piece of plastic that is put in the ear and transfers sound from the hearing aid to the auditory canal.